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UPS system

How Does a UPS System Work?

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An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is a device that provides reliable emergency power to a load in case there is a failure in the utility mains or any other input power source. This system differs from a standby generator, an emergency or auxiliary power system in that it provides near-instantaneous/instantaneous protection from the input power interruptions. It does this by:

  • Means of attached batteries & other connected electronic circuitry in low power applications
  • Means of flywheels & generators in high power applications.

The on-battery runtime in most UPS sources is 5 to 15 minutes for smaller units. However, this time is sufficient to bring an efficient auxiliary power source online, or even to properly shut down the connected equipment. Larger UPS’ used in commercial and industrial applications tend to have a longer standby time.

UPS’ are generally used to protect data centres, computing systems, electrical equipment or telecommunication equipment where unexpected power disruptions have the potential to cause data loss and/or business disruptions, injuries and sometimes, even fatalities. UPS units can vary in size from systems designed to protect only a single computer to large-scale units powering buildings, massive data centres or even manufacturing processes.

UPS Design Types

There are three basic categories of UPS systems:

Standby/offline UPS

In this system, the input power directly powers the load. Its backup power circuitry is switched on only in case of a failure in the utility power. Most UPS systems below 1 kVA are the standby or line-interactive variants that are also typically less expensive.

Line interactive UPS

This maintains the in-line inverter and redirects the DC current path of the battery from the standard charging mode to supplying steady current in case of a power failure.

On-line UPS

This system uses the “double conversion” method when accepting AC input. It rectifies this current to DC in order to pass it through the battery strings or rechargeable battery and then inverts it back to 120V/240V Alternating Current to power the protected equipment.

For large-scale power units, dynamic UPS systems may sometimes be used. An alternator/synchronous motor is connected on the mains through a choke and the energy storage occurs in the flywheel. In case of a failure in power from the mains, the Eddy-current regulation helps efficiently maintain the power on the load. In some cases, DUPS are integrated with diesel-generators. They form a diesel rotary uninterruptible power supply. One of the latest UPS systems uses fuel cells & hydrogen as its power source and provides longer operation times in more compact spaces.

Since every UPS system has specific characteristics, the system you opt for needs to meet the needs of your application and setting. If the system is to be used in harsh outdoor conditions, it would need some additional protective features and would have to be more robust and rugged.

Custom Designed UPS Systems

The best way to make sure that the UPS you purchase meets your specific needs is to consult with experts. Discuss your specific needs with them. They would be able to provide appropriate solutions and advice on functionality and the pros and cons of the different systems.

It’s always a good idea to opt for scalable systems that would be able to grow in conjunction with your business needs. Today, many UPS manufacturers provide custom designed power systems to meet their client’s specific requirements.

If you want to know anything more about any of our products and services, don’t hesitate to contact us at KaRaTec Power Supply Pty. You can give us a call at 612 9808 1127. You can also fill in this contact us form and we will respond within the shortest possible time to help you with the guidance and information you need.

Thanks for reading,
Karatec Power Supply Pty
612 9808 1127

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